STRUGGLE OF THE PIONEERS
The early history of the education of pediatricians in Surabaya is essentially inseparable from the history of the development of the medical profession in Indonesia in general and especially in Surabaya. In fact, it can be said from the City of Heroes that the start of a professional development that will later be known in Indonesia as the figure “Pediatrician”
The education of pediatricians in Surabaya is a milestone in the early education of pediatricians in Indonesia. Therefore, this history is very closely related to the history of the development of medical education in the country. Starting from the establishment of the School of Indigenous Doctors until the start of the pioneering education of pediatricians in Indonesia by Prof. Mas Dayat Hidayat, dr. J.H. de Haas, and Prof. Dr. Sudjono Djuned Pusponegoro.
Starting with an epidemic in the Banyumas area around 1847, the Dutch government, which at that time was overwhelmed to handle it, decided to issue Governor’s Decree Number 2, January 22, 1849 to educate several indigenous people for free in Jakarta, Semarang, and Surabaya to be employed. became lnlandsch Geneeskundi en Vaccinateur (native doctor and smallpox paramedics). His education began on January 5, 1851 at the Weltevreden Army Hospital (at the site which later became the Gatot Subroto Army Hospital) with the principal Dr. P. Bleeker. Two years later, this school graduated 11 students who were given the title of Djawa doctor.
Starting in 1864, the length of Djawa’s doctor’s education was extended by 3 years with expanded authority, even though it was still under the supervision of Dutch doctors. Since 1891, a regulation has been enacted for every native who is interested in becoming a Javanese doctor to go through a Dutch elementary school first. In 1901 Glodok Stadsverband Hospital was also used as a place of education. The Indigenous Doctor School occupies a new building in Hospitaalweg (currently Kebangkitan Nasional Building at 26th Abdurrachman Saleh St. Central Jakarta) since March 1, 1902. During this period, the science of pediatric ailments and the services of child sufferers were still combined with adults. Also none of the graduates continued to be pediatricians.
Beginning in 1903, the School of Indigenous Doctors was renamed the School tot Opialding van Inlandsche ‘Artsen or STOVIA. To enter this school, prospective students must pass an entrance examination and come from a Dutch elementary school graduate. In the next trip, several STOVIA students were recorded in the history of the rise of nationality to the independence of our nation. The writings of Dr. Wahidin Soedirohusodo, alumni of the School of Indigenous Doctors in 1872, through Retnodoemilah magazine, were able to raise awareness to increase education for the welfare of the people. This paper also has a strong influence on STOVIA students, so that during their education they not only study medicine but also struggle to think about peoples. The 1903 STOVIA students were led by Soetomo and Soeradji. Twin with dr. Wahidin and assisted by Goenawan Mangoenkoesoemo. Soewarno, Mohammad Saleh, and Soeleman, on May 20, 1908 formed the Boodi Oetomo organization by using STOVIA as its center. Recorded in history in October 1908 the young men held a National Congress that discussed the issue of education and people’s welfare. From this STOVIA then came political fighters. One of them who is very persistent in fighting for his ideas and political aspirations through deExpress newspaper is dr. Tjipto Mangoenkoesoemo.
Starting in 1909 using a 9-year curriculum, STOVIA graduated doctors with an Inlandsh Arts degree. Holders of this degree were permitted to carry out medical and midwifery practices. When the curriculum was changed to 10 years after 1913, STOVIA began accepting students from various nations with graduate degrees being renamed the Indisch Arts. One of the STOVIA graduates in 1916 was Dr. Mas Dayat Hidayat. In 1928-1930 he continued his Pediatrician Education in Amsterdam. So he is one of the first pediatricians of the Indonesian.
Meanwhile in Surabaya, based on the Decree of the Governor of the Dutch East Indies No. 42 dated May 8, 1913 reported in the Staatblad van Nederlansdch Indie N.365 and signed on May 20, 1913 by General Secretary De Graaf, it was decided that on July 1, 1913 the Nederlands Indische Artsen School would be opened or better known as NIAS in Surabaya. On 15 September 1913, 30 people were declared as the first students of NIAS Surabaya at 38th Kedungdoro St Surabaya. This school has a system of requirements and the same length of education as STOVIA. His first director was also a former STOVIA lecturer, namely Dr. AE Sitsen. This is where the era of the establishment of a medical school in Surabaya, which is known as the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, with dr. AE Sitsen as his first Dean.
In 1919 the Dutch government planned to establish a High School of Medicine (Geneenkundige Hoogeschool or GH). Therefore, starting in 1924 STOVIA did not accept new students because it would be closed gradually. Meanwhile NIAS in Surabaya continued its education process. STOVIA students who are still in the preparation period are channeled to NIAS Surabaya and AMS (Algemene Middelbare School) Department B. While for students who have passed the preparation period, they are still allowed to continue their education. So that STOVIA at that time still graduated Indische Arts until 1935.
Similar to STOVIA students, many NIAS Surabaya students were actively involved in the political movement at the time, among others: M. Soetopo (founder and chairman of the Great Executive Board of Djong Djava in 1918, and also the Editor of Soeloeh Indonesia), Wijono. Soewondo (Chair of Indonesia Moeda 1931-1932), and Soetomo (Daily Editor of Soeara Oemoem) On July 2, 1923, NIAS moved and occupied a new building at 47th Viaduct St Surabaya (we now know as a member of the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga). NIAS students’ education using the Hospitaal Simpang Gevangenis (Stadsvorband) which later became Centrale Burgerlijke Ziekeninrichting (CBZ) Simpang. Teaching on the science of pediatric own disease at NIAS was given specifically first in 1933 by Dr. Mas Dayat Hidayat, an INST graduate from STOVIA in 1916. Teaching on the science of pediatric own disease at NIAS was given specifically first in 1933 by Dr. Mas Dayat Hidayat. who gained expertise as a pediatrician from Amsterdam (1928-1930), after returning to Indonesia in 1930 and had a chance worked at CBZ Semarang for 3 years.
In 1933 he moved to Surabaya to teach at NIAS and served as the Head of the CBZ Children Section in Surabaya (1922-1942). Meanwhile in Jakarta, GH’s special teaching on pediatrics began in 1943 by J. H. De Haas. For this reason, pediatrician education in Indonesia is considered to have begun in the City of Heroes where the first lecture was Dr. Mas Dayat Hidayat in 1933 was the starting point of its history. The next period was the transition of Dutch rule to Japan in 1942. NIAS Surabaya and GH Jakarta were closed by Japan, and dr. Mas Dayat Hidayat was moved to Jakarta. The Japanese government itself established the Ikai Dai Gaku (Medical Higher Education Institution) on April 29, 1943 as a result of pressure from former NIAS and GH teachers. Some doctors were appointed as Professor of Ika Dai Gaku according to their respective fields including dr. Mas Dayat Hidayat. The assistants in the children’s section at that time included: dr. Wim Suradi, dr. Sutedjo, dr. Kamarudin, and Dr. Darmasetiawan. In the end, Ika Dai Gaku changed its name to Indonesian Association of Repoeblik Medicine when Japan surrendered to allies. When the situation in Jakarta and its surroundings became inconducive related to the war of independence, the university was divided into several branches. The Jakarta branch is led by Dr. Sarwono and Dr. Soetomo, the Klaten branch with its center in Tegalyoso Hospital led by Dr. Sardjito, the Surakarta branch led by dr. Asikin Widjaja-kusumah at Jebres Hospital, Malang branch led by dr. M. Sjaaf.
Prof. Mas Dayat Hidayat subsequently served as Head of the Children’s Section of the General Hospital in the period 1945-1950. He continued to educate prospective pediatricians by means of an internship. One of his assistants is Dr. Sugiri, who would later develop the Children’s Section at Padjadjaran University, Rancabadak, and Bandung, since 1950. Prof. Mas Dayat Hidayat pension in 1950, which was subsequently replaced by Dr. Sudjoyo Djuned Pusponegoro. In August 1951, Dr. Sudjono was confirmed as a professor in pediatrics. Under the leadership of Prof. Sudjono, Medical Faculty Universitas Indonesia Children Section experienced very rapid and fundamental changes. Assistants were sent to the United States and Europe to deepen various aspects of disease. After graduating as pediatricians, several of his assistants later spread to develop the Children’s Section in various hospitals and faculties of state medicine in Indonesia. Among these are Dr. Goepito Hardjowijono to Medical Faculty Universitas Sriwijaya Palembang (1956), dr. Jo Kian Tjaij went to Medical Faculty Universitas Sumatera Utara Medan (1959-1974), dr. Ch J. V.A. Makaliwy to Medical Faculty Hasanudin University Makasar (1960), dr. Sutedjo who would later continue the development of the Medical Faculty Universitas Indonesia Children Section, dr. Gembiro who developed social pediatrics at the Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia, and dr. Kwari Satjadibrata went to Medical Faculty Universitas Airlangga Surabaya (1960).
Although the education of specialist pediatricians in various places in Indonesia has been pioneered and started to be developed since the 1930s, but the Children’s Section of Medical Faculty Universitas Indonesia, Medical Faculty Universitas Padjajaran Bandung, Medical Faculty Universitas Diponegoro Semarang and Medical Faculty Universitas Ailanggar Surabaya, were jointly recently inaugurated as Pediatrician Education Institutions. (LPDA) in 1974. Since KONIKA VI Denpasar in 1984, the term LPDA has been replaced by LPDSA (Pediatrician Education Institute). The government’s prohibition at that time to use the term “Institution” caused the name LPDSA to change to PPDSA (Pediatrician Education Center) which was then approved at the IDAI Working Meeting in Bandung in 1991.